Key inquiry questions:
• Who was onboard the HMB Endeavour and what did they do?
• What can we learn from the lives of the HMB Endeavour crew?

The muster book
The muster book or list of names on board Endeavour counted 94 men and boys when the ship sailed from England on August 26, 1768 to Tahiti to observe the transit of Venus. 

The crew included:
• 6 Commissioned Officers chosen by the Royal Navy to sail the ship including the commander, lieutenants and the midshipmen who were officers in training.
• 6 warrant officers, who did specific work to care for the ship and crew. These roles included the master, the gunner, boatswain (bosun), surgeon, carpenter, armourer and sailmaker. 
• 38 Able Seamen, experienced sailors who also had other roles such as the butcher or cook.
• 12 marines in case avoid trouble amongst the crew and attack from foreigners and Indigenous peoples that the ship may encounter on its journey. They were sometimes required to work shoulder to shoulder with the crew.
• Assistants, 'mates', to the master, the carpenter, the boatswain and the surgeon. 
• Servants to the officers and gentlemen

Access the full crew list HERE  

The Master and his servant 
Isaac Manley was servant to Robert Molineaux, the master of the ship. The most senior of the warrant officers the master's main duty was to navigate and oversee the day to day running of the ship under the direction of the captain. At 13, Manley was commencing his career in the Navy as an apprentice and 'young gentleman'. From Molineaux he learnt about life at sea, how to sail the ship, use navigational equipment to navigate safely and how to manage in emergencies such as when the Endeavour was wrecked on the Great Barrier Reef. He was appointed a midshipman in February 1771 after the deaths of Midshipmen Bootie and Monkhouse and continued to have a successful career until his death in 1862.

What was life aboard Endeavor like for a young boy?
How did Isaac Manley view the actions of Cook, Banks and others?
What did Isaac learn from his experiences of sailing in the South Pacific?

Engage with the book Captain Cook's Apprentice by Robert Hill 2008 to learn about life on the Endeavour through Isaac Manley who served on the ship when he was 13 years old. Access the literature pack at HMB Endeavour Teacher Resources.

Young Nick
At 11 years of age, Nicholas Young was the youngest onboard the ship. He was servant to William Monkhouse, the ship's surgeon and was the first to sight land on their approach to New Zealand. After returning to England he went on to become a servant of Joseph Banks. A bronze statue of Young Nick is located in Waikanae Beach, Gisborne, New Zealand to commemorate the sighting.

Engage with the book Stowaway by Karen Hesse 2000 to learn about life on board the Endeavour through Young Nick. Access the literature pack at HMB Endeavour Teacher Resources.

What do the people on board HMB Endeavour reveal about the past?
How should we view the bronze statue of Young Nick?

Further reading:

Main image: Cook's Journal displayed on Cook's personal writing desk, James Cook (1728–1779), Journal of H.M.S. Endeavour 1768-1771,